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Legal Reference   Tags: law, library_and_information_science, library_science  

About reference work in law libraries, and reference work involving legal materials in general libraries, prepared for the LIS 504 class, Fall 2009.
Last Updated: Jan 14, 2015 URL: Print Guide RSS UpdatesEmail Alerts
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Governmental Resources


Reference Works

Basic Legal Research: Tools and Strategies - Sloan
4th ed., 2009

Bieber's Dictionary of Legal Abbreviations - Mary Miles Prince
5th ed., 1993

Black's Law Dictionary
9th ed., 2009

The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation

Fundamentals of Legal Research - Barkan, Mersky & Dunn
9th ed., 2009

Legal Research in a Nutshell - Morris Cohen
9th ed.

Specialized Legal Research - Chanin/Hazelton
(looseleaf, 1987-present)

Types of Law Libraries

You may encounter legal reference work in ANY library!! You may find the occasional legal reference question at the desk of a busy public library, or as a regular part of your traffic at a specialized law library. Many special libraries have a connection to law, including corporate, court, state, county, law firm, and academic.

Law librarians do legal reference in varying proportions to other work in a law library, but many librarians in other libraries also encounter questions from their patrons that involve the law to some degree.

  • Corporate Law Libraries  
    From Microsoft to Apple, Exxon to Shell Oil, Prudential to Allstate, most large corporations have law librarians. Corporate law librarians fall under the Private Law Libraries SIS in AALL, with their own subgroup, linked above.
  • State Law Library  
    Above url directs you to AALL's group of state, court, and county law librarians, the SCCLL-SIS. SCCLL is one of the largest special interest sections in AALL, and their site contains useful information for librarians on everything from collection development issues to handling self-represented litigants.
  • County and Court Law Libraries
    The link above directs you to the Massachusetts Trial Court Libraries, one example of a system of local law libraries in a state.
  • Other Governmental Law Libraries
    Even the Senate Judiciary Committee has a law library! Granted, it's a single librarian, and the collection is primarily distributed in electronic form, but the library was valuable enough to the committee that the librarian survived two changes in Senate leadership (and a proposed dismantling of the library, in-between)
  • Law Firm Libraries
    Law firm librarians make up the majority of the Private Law Librarians Special Interest Section in AALL, linked above. You can see from the titles of recent presentations at the Annual Meeting the issues that concern firm librarians.
  • Academic Law Libraries  
    Every one of the 193 ABA-approved law schools in the U.S. has a law library to serve its faculty and students, and some serve the public in varying degrees, as well.

At the Legal Reference Desk: Top 4 Issues

  1. Pro Se patrons, aka the self-represented litigant in the library.
    Among the many challenges that such patrons present to librarians, are concerns on the part of the librarian or the library about the unauthorized practice of law (by the librarian). Unauthorized practice is prohibited in all 50 states, but the definition of "practice" is somewhat vague. Librarians should know the law in their state, and more importantly, the policy of their library.
    The University of South Carolina has implemented a traveling librarian program, to educate public librarians about handling legal reference questions. They have a brochure that offers suggestions for dealing with self-represented litigants.

  2. Legal research services
    In many law libraries, the librarian performs research for a client, e.g., the lawyer, the judge, or for faculty in academic institutions. Some law school libraries run very large and successful programs where librarians supervise students who do research for faculty. In others, the librarians handle research requests ranging from preparing annotated bibliographies on an issue to assembling a package of research on a topic. And in a law firm, most of a librarian's work could be termed research, as opposed to reference.

  3. Legal reference
    Reference work with legal materials is complicated by the complexity of the law and the interplay between primary sources of law and the many secondary sources of commentary and analysis that are crucial to an understanding of the law on any given topic. Legal reference work includes instruction on the use of legal resources such as statutes, caselaw digests and databases, regulations and other sources, and recommendation of secondary sources.

  4. Non-legal reference
    A growing percentage of reference questions in law libraries are actually not about the law, but are related to business or statistical information, or other government documents. This drift is especially noticeable in the law firm environment, where special law & business consulting firms have spun off.

    What About the JD?

    One of the first questions I hear from graduate students in LIS is whether it's possible to enter this field without a law degree. In a word, YES!  According to the most recent American Association of Law Libraries' (AALL) Biennial Salary Survey, only 27% of respondents had both the MLS and the JD degree. There are several good articles on this questions, as well. Keep an eye on the AALL's Career Hotline (rss) for job postings and descriptions.

    Law library jobs that do require the JD tend to be in academia, especially in management. And since law librarians are recruited from law practice and law schools in addition to library schools, many law librarians find their "fit" within the profession after giving law practice a try. So the market for law librarians has remained relatively well-stocked with dual-degreed applicants for those positions that require both degrees. But if you're interested in law librarianship, there are plenty of opportunities for work in firms or other settings, that don't require the JD.


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